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Schematic Diagram of Thermal power plant

What Is Power Plant?

 Read this article to learn about the next six Elements of the hydropower plant, i.e., Forebay and Intake Structures, Head Race or Intake Conduits, Surge Tank, Turbines and Generators, Power House, and Trail Race and Draft Tube. Forebay and Intake Structures: As out the name implies forebay is an expanded body of water facing ingestion. When water is taken by a penstock from 12, the reservoir acts as forebay. When the canal leads water to the tanks the segment of the canal facing turbines is expanded to make forebay. For providing the turbines with the same, the forebay shops water. The water can't be allowed to pass because it comes from the canal or the reservoir.

With hoist, gates are provided at intake to control the entrance of water. Rakes are supplied to clean the trash racks. Head Race or Intake Conduits: water is carried by them. The option of an open channel or a stress conduit depends upon site requirements. The pressure line can be in the form of a noodle intake passing inside the entire body of the dam or it may be a long conduit of concrete or steel or on occasion a tunnel extending for several km between the reservoir and out the powerhouse. The pressure conduit doesn't follow the ground contours and any slope is given to fit the site conditions.

working principle

A thermal power plant works on the principle that heat is released by burning coal and it creates steam or water vapor. this steam or vapor coupled through the embedded with the turbine and which is coupled with a generator, where power is generated. The speed of water in the power conduit is also higher than in the open station. Up to about 60 meters head out the velocity might range between 2.5 to 3 m\/sec. For higher heads, the velocity can be still higher. It is sometimes convenient or economical to adopt open station partly or entirely as the main conduit. The headrace canal might lead water to the turbines or into the penstocks and is usually used from low head installations where heat losses are relatively important. The benefit of an open station is that it might be used for irrigation or navigation purposes.

Surge Tank:

 A surge tank is a storage reservoir fitted in some opening made on a long tube line or penstock to receive the refused flow if out the pipeline is suddenly closed by a valve fitted in its steep end. A surge tank, therefore, relieves out the pipeline of excessive stress produced because of its closing, thus eliminating out the positive water hammer effect. It's done by admitting from out the surge tank a large mass of water which otherwise would have flown out from out the pipeline but returns to out the tank due to the closure of pipe end. The surge tank is mainly used from a water power plant or from a large pumping plant to restrain the stress variations resulting in rapid changes in the flow. In the case of the water power plant, when there's a sudden reduction of load on the turbine it becomes necessary for the regulator to close the turbine doors to regulate the flow of water to keep out the speed of the turbine constant.
Question related to this  topic

What is a thermal power plant?
Tell the name of the power plant in India?
what is the working principle of the thermal power plant?
 what is the Surge tank?

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