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Ac Induction Motor: Working Principle, types and details  


An Induction motor is an Alternating current(AC) motor in which the AC electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction and create the magnetic field of the stator winding. This is called the Ac Induction motor.

In the previous article, we discuss the Dc Motor basic
Read About That click here.

Induction motor two type 

1. Single-phase Induction Motor 
2.Three Phase Induction Motor

Single Phase Induction Motor

Single-phase induction motors are used such as air conditioners, ceiling fans, washing machines, and refrigerators. These motors include shaded pole the split stage, and capacitor motors. An AC engine is an electromechanical device that converts electric energy into mechanical motion throughout the shifting of the frequency as well as the usage of electromagnetism and voltages produced motor controller or by the utility company. Because they do so far and with little intervention, AC motors are in the center of the consumption on the planet. The AC motor is definitely the most affordable and simplest. Motor Stator as well as Rotor - There aren't many components that compose an AC motor, provided that they remain inside their operating attributes they can run so long as one hundred years with hardly any maintenance every now and then.

 Why Single Phase Induction Motor isn't Self Starting?

Ans:- According to the double field revolving theory, we will resolve any alternating amount into 2 parts. every part contains a magnitude capable the 1/2 the most magnitude of the alternating amount, and each of these elements rotates within the other way to every different. as an example – a flux, φ will be resolved into 2 parts each of those parts rotates within the other way i. e if one φm/2 is rotating during an exceedingly in a very dextral direction then the opposite φm / 2 rotates in an anticlockwise direction. When we apply one part AC provides to the stator coil winding of a single-phase induction motor, it produces its flux of magnitude, φm. consistent with the double field revolving theory, this alternating flux, φm is split into 2 parts of magnitude φm/2. every one of those parts can rotate within the other way, with the synchronous speed, Ns. Let us decision these 2 parts of flux as forwarding part of flux, φf and also the backward part of flux, φb. The resultant of those 2 parts of flux at any instant of your time provides the worth of fast stator coil flux at that individual instant. Now at first condition, each the forward and backward parts of flux ar precisely opposite to every different. Also, each of those parts of flux is equal in magnitude. So, they cancel one another and therefore net torque intimate by the rotor at the beginning condition is zero. So, the single-phase induction motors aren't self-starting.

Three Phase Induction Motor

A large proportion of the motors using business are a single-phase and Three-phase motors, Three Phase induction motor - Single Phase Induction Motors - A single-stage induction engine is an electric engine that runs on a single waveform of alternating current. Single-phase induction motors are utilized in residential programs for AC engine appliances in single, or multiple dwellings. There are 3 types of single-phase induction motors that would be their shaded pole, split phase, as well as capacitor motors. Shaded pole Motor - Shaded Pole motors, as seen in figure 3, would be single-stage induction motors found operating small cooling fans inside toaster in computers. They belong to the family of induction squirrel cage motors that are used in limited applications that require less than 3/4 horsepower, usually ranging from 1/20 to 1/6 horsepower. The lightest load a shaded pole engine can turn component that's very lightweight as well as able to spin in low density, Typically when shaded pole motors go bad they're thrown in their recycle bin and a brand new one is purchased.

Why is Three Phase Induction Motor Self Starting?
Ans:- Three-phase induction motor, there are three-phase lines with a 120° phase difference. The rotating electromagnetic field has the same phase difference(120°) which will make the rotor move. If we consider three phases R, Y, and B when phase a gets magnetized, the rotor will move towards the phase a winding R, in the next moment phase Y will get magnetized and it will attract or engage the rotor and then phase B. So the rotor will continue to rotate. The parts of the AC motor are the stator and the rotor. There is A rotor a portion of the AC motor that's supported by a pair of bearings to permit spinning. The bearings are pressed to the set of end bells that are filled up with a lubricant to permit movement. The stator is the fixed or fixed part of the motor wherein the end bells are connected as well as their windings are wrapped around their laminate sheets of iron which creates an electromagnetic rotating field when their coil is energized. Motors are very versatile electromechanical components only because they can be sized, configured, and built to fit almost any situation or perform almost any duty. 

According to Rotor part, there are two types of Induction motor:-

1. Squirrel Cage Rotor Induction Motor(SQCRIM)2. Slip Ring Rotor or Wound Rotor Induction Motor (SRIM)

Squirrel cage Induction Motor (SQCRIM)

A Three-phase squirrel cage induction motor(SQRIM) is an induction motor that functions based on the principle of electromagnetism. It is called a ‘squirrel cage’ motor because the rotor inside of it known as a ‘squirrel cage rotor’ it looks like a squirrel cage. This rotor is a cylindrical steel lamination, with very influenced conductive metal basically aluminum or copper embedded into its surface. When an alternating current is run through the stator windings, a rotating electromagnetic field is produced.

Slip Ring Rotor or Wound Rotor Induction Motor (SRIM)

Slip Ring Rotor consists of a slotted armature, an insulated conductor arranged in slots forming a three-phase double-layer distribution winding similar to that of the stator winding. The rotor is star connected and the open ends of the rotor are connected with brushes to slip ring mounted in the shaft whereas the other end of the slip ring is connected to a variable resistor. Application Crane, Elevator

For better understanding watch this

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