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Introduction of Arduino:-

 If you like tinkering with electronics but time constraints and a lack of knowledge or preventing you from making a start then Arduino is the solution so what is Arduino? Arduino is a microcontroller-based open-source electronics prototyping board that can be programmed with an easy-to-use Arduino IDE.

What is Arduino?

 Arduino consists of both a physical programmable circuit board and a piece of software the Arduino IDE uses a simplified version of C++ making it easier to learn the Arduino platform has become quite popular with people just starting out with electronics and for good reason the Uno is one of the more popular boards in the Arduino family and a great choice for beginners in this article we'll talk about what is on it and what it can do the major components of the Arduino UNO board. The Arduino board is the following USB connector power ports microcontroller analog input pins digital pins reset switch crystal oscillator USB interface chip tx/RX LEDs.
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now let's take a closer look at each component the first component is the:- 

  1. USB connector
  2. power port
  3. Microcontroller(28 pins, atmega328p)
  4. CPU,Flash memory(2 kb)
  5. Analog Input Pins
  6. Digital pins
  7. Reset Switch
  8. Crystal oscillator
  9. USB interface chip

  1. USB connector:-USB connector this is a printer USB port used to load a program from the Arduino ide onto the Arduino board this board can also be powered through this port. 
  2. Power Ports:-power ports the Arduino board can be powered through an AC to DC adaptor or a battery the power source can be connected by plugging in a 2.1 millimeter center-positive plug into the power jack of the board the Arduino UNO board operates at a voltage of 5 volts but it can withstand a maximum voltage of 20 volts if the board is supplied with a higher voltage there is a voltage regulator it sits between the power port and the USB connector that protects the board from burning out.
  3. Microcontroller:- microcontroller It is the most prominently visible black rectangular chip with 28 pins think of it as the brains of your Arduino the microcontroller used on the Uno board is atmega328p by Atmel a major microcontroller manufacturer atmega328p has the following components in it flash memory of 32 kb the program loaded from the Arduino ide is stored here Ram of 2 Kb this is runtime memory. 
  4. CPU:-CPU it controls everything that goes on within the device it fetches the program instructions from flash memory and runs it with the help of RAM electrically erasable programmable read-only memory ee pron of 1 KB this is a type of non-volatile memory and it keeps the data even after device restart and reset atmega328p is pre-programmed with bootloader. This allows you to directly upload a new Arduino program into the device without using any external Hardware programmer making the Arduino Uno board easy to use.
  5. ANALOG INPUT PIN:-Analog input pins the Arduino UNO board has 6 analog input pins labeled analog 0 to 5 these pins can read the signal from an analog sensor such as a temperature sensor and convert it into a digital value for system understanding these pins. The Pins just measure voltage and not the current because they have very high internal resistance hence only a small amount of current flows through these pins although these pins are labeled analog and our analog inputs by default these pins can also be used for digital input or output.
  6. DIGITAL PINS:-Digital pins you can find these pins labeled digital 0 to 13 these pins can be used as either input or output pins when used as output these pins act as a power supply source for the components can act to it and when used as input pins they read the signals from the component connected to them when digital pins are used as output pins they supply 40 milliamps of current at five volts which is more than enough to light an LED some of the digital pins are labeled with the tilde symbol next to the pin numbers 3 5 6 9 10 and 11 these pins act as normal digital pins but can also be used for pulse width modulation PWM which simulates analog output such as fading and LED in and out.
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  7. RESET SWITCH:-Reset switch when this switch is clicked it sends a logical pulse to the reset pin of the microcontroller and now runs the program again from the start this can be very useful if your code doesn't repeat and you want to test it multiple times.
  8. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR:-crystal oscillator this is a quartz crystal oscillator which takes 16 million times a second on each tick the microcontroller performs one operation for example addition subtraction etc.
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  9. USB INTERFACE CHIP:-USB interface chip think of this as a signal translator it converts signals in the USB level to a level that an Arduino Uno board understands the last one is the TX Rx indicator TX stands for transmit and RX for receive these are indicator LEDs which blink whether the Uno board is transmitting or receiving data now that you've explored the Arduino UN o board you have started your journey toward building your first internet-of-things prototype how to get started by your Arduino install Arduino ide install the libraries get familiar with the ide and the programming language by practicing now bring your ideas to life you.

Basic Hardware of Arduino Uno:-

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Hardware for this beginner to tory now you can get them from amazon cheaply and if you have the money. I recommend buying one of the many kids out there where you get a lot of different pieces of hardware to play with a so you've got you do we know who knows the first thing. I want to do is to get you familiar with the hardware will often hear are do we know as being called microcontrollers and that's technically incorrect our do we know for circuit boards that have microcontroller chips on them but they also have a lot of other stuff on there, so let's take a quick to where this is the microcontroller audio who knows use a series of micro first called at mega of yours they're made by a company called at my you can by just the bear chips on their own for about a dollar but then you have to do a lot of summary connected to the microcontrollers is a crystal resonates or this controls how fast the microcontroller was running. I have a separate tutorial on resonators and also layers which you migh and useful now in order to upload the software you create to the main microcontroller there's actually a mother micro controller this chip is what lets you connect your us beak able to the art we know and communicate bias it lets you upload your programs onto the main microcontroller and once you have your program running this chip is what allows you to send messages back forth between your computer and gerard we know and this is extremely important for the buggy one great thing about harder, we know is that you can power them purely from your cable but if you don't want your project all was attached to a computer you can just use an external nine volts power source with a barrel jack over here you know has a built in vaulted regulator that will reduce the voltage to five holtz and if you ever want to build your heart we know program you've got he said but and if you have time it's worth studying the art we know no schematic don't worry that looks complicated you don't need to understand most of it. I'm just trying to get you to understand and what the art we know designers did they took.

Arduino isn’t a microcontroller nor a microprocessor: It’s an easy and easy-to-use development board that's counting on a microcontroller in it.
What are the variations then?

Well, and in outline, we will say the following:

Microprocessor:- is that the brain of all computing systems (such as your laptop, smartphone, home assistant, glucose measurement device…etc). It’s the unit to blame for all necessary calculations which permit a system to figure and turn out the expected output. A silicon chip can’t work alone as a result of it has to receive knowledge from different units, and this can be why you’ll want different elements like registers, memory units and Input/Output ports (at least).
Microcontroller:- It’s AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM, and this suggests it embeds many units in one single chip: silicon chip + Memory units (RAM, ROM, FLASH) + Input/Output Ports + different peripherals (such as digitizer or Analog-Comparator or Timers..etc). Microcontrollers are special as a result of they permit developers to make a functioning system in a very short time since you don’t have to be compelled to select many elements and ensure that they're compatible with one another. Again, a Microcontroller may be a single chip that can't work alone: You’ll have to be compelled to provide it power and to possess a correct interface to load and flash your program into it, also as having ways in which to show the processed knowledge out of it.
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Development Board:- Take a microcontroller (or a microprocessor) and supply it with USB-port, HDMI-port, power-input port, show units like Alphanumeric-LCD or different pregnant ways in which to show info (such as LEDs or Seven-Segment) and you’ll have a development board. Arduino is one amongst the foremost celebrated (and terribly simple) development boards and there are several versions and kinds of Arduinos, every of that has completely different capabilities in terms of computing characteristics (type of microcontroller, size of recollections, max. clock speed…) in addition as interface functionalities (USB, HDMI, ethernet, variety of Input/Output ports, LCD, LEDs). In short, exploitation development boards can enable you to begin testing your comes and ideas in a very in no time method, however, it additionally contains a drawback that the limitation with the already offered hardware within it.

The question is: that one ought to be used? 

the solution depends on your application. In short, we can say the following: For complicated systems that need a high level of quality, you ought to use a complete microprocessor and style its corresponding board by selecting the parts separately. If you would like to save lots of it slow, effort, power consumption, and cash, you'll use a microcontroller. If you only need to demonstrate a thought, check one thing or learn new skills, you'll keep company with development boards. The previous rules don't seem to be sure, i.e. a development board may well be appropriate because of the genocide for a few applications. you've got to understand your project and goal in a very great way before deciding that factor you would like to use.

Application Of Arduino:-
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Basics of how to set went up to do simple things like make can lead Deming circuit control, the speed of motors and even make some well the filth cope so what is art? I'm sure you've heard about these things a million times by now and if you're confused you have every right to be because the word hard we know refers to so many different things watching. I'll explain all of them micro rovers or integrated circuits that are basically tiny computers. They there are in small simple software programs there little powered enough that they can be powered by a battery for days but they're fast enough to process data much faster and any human being can think art. we know is a company and Italy that designs and cells circuit boards that make microcontrollers easy to use they call these circuit towards art we nose and there are a lot of different types of art we know, for example "you that simple hard we know boards like the art we know who know which is cheap and good enough for most projects you could use and you know to control motors lighting cameras already to build a simple robot and then you have fancier odd".

 we know with more powerful processors which have wi-fi ethernet and more the company and we know open source as all of their hardware designs which means that you don't just have to buy from them there are countless third party companies that make their own variants of the ardor we know hardware designs they can't call the marge.

 we know but functionally they're the same thing there are also these things called are we know shields which are basically circuit boards that plug into your main we circuit board and let you do more stuff for the exam.

people data fruit makes feel that let you control motors and those without having to design motor control circuitry and spark fun have fields that let you turn your art we know into a simple cell phone or an empty three player so that was a quick overview of Arduino. we know the company and we know hardware but there's more there's also the art we know software development environment and this is what makes art.

Conclusion of Basic Arduino:-
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we know good for beginners historically he wanted to program microcontrollers you'd have to type out of a lot of binary and memorize a lot of hard to remember registers and instructions then you'd have to use special programming hardware with custom made cables to upload your program onto your microcontroller but we know the company got rid of all of that they created. Its software that works on the windows make a Linux which makes uploading your code is simplest connecting us cable and clicking a button they created a programming leg in which that lets you can figure all of the earth hardware product in the same way and although it's not a simple it learning python the coding. software is one of the easiest programming experiences you'll. you have her house ok so hopefully that clarifies with Arduino means in different contexts now when people say they used and for their project, they're probably talking about the are you know it's highly unlikely that you'll outgrow on any time.

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