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Microprocessor And Microcontroller, Definition, Introduction, Applications & Differences between them

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What is a Microprocessor?

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Address bus of the microprocessor

The debut of a bit of technology called Microprocessor has altered the manner wherein we see, analyze and control the world around us over the last 2 decades. The first commercial microprocessor is 4 piece 4004 developed by Intel and has been made available in 1971. Since that time, it took an extraordinary success in its development and usage. The microprocessor is regarded as a product of developments in the fields of Integrated Circuit manufacturing and computer architecture.

What is Microcontroller?


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Address bus of the microcontroller
 The manufacturing process and programming techniques that are responsible for the creation of microprocessors also has resulted in the growth of microcontrollers. Until a few years ago, the microcontrollers are popular in the technical community and overall public although most consumer electronics such as televisions, video games, video cassette recorders, phones, lifts, etc.

Introduction of Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Comprise of them. Before going to the differences between microcontroller and microprocessor or tabulating microcontroller vs. Microprocessor, let's see the introduction of microcontroller and microprocessor. A Microprocessor, popularly called a computer on a chip in its first days, is an overall purpose processor fabricated on a single integrated circuit and is an entire digital computer. As per the directions. The term from the definition of a microprocessor is function. The main job of a microprocessor is to take information as input from the input apparatus then process this information based on the directions and provide the outcome of these directions as output through output devices.

Application of Microprocessor and Microcontroller

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Application of Microcontroller

The microprocessor would be a good example of a sequential logic device as it's memory internally and uses it to store directions. The first commercial Microprocessor has been released by Intel in the year 1971 Nov named as 4004. They're Arithmetic and Logic Unit, Control Unit, Registers, Instruction Decoder, and Data Bus, but the first 3 are considered significant components. The block diagram of a microprocessor with these fundamental components is shown below. The internal structure of a microprocessor would be shown below. Earlier microprocessors made use of Von Neumann design where the data and instructions are stored in the same memory.

The Drawbacks and Disadvantages of Microcontroller and Microprocessor


  Although this architecture is straightforward, there are many drawbacks. Among the main disadvantages is that instruction and data can't be accessed at the exact same time as they share a single data bus. This frequently degrades exactly the overall performance of exactly the device. Later, Harvard University architecture is introduced which make use of different program and data memories with different buses, both information and instructions can be obtained at the same time. Later Modified Harvard University Architecture is developed wherein the program memory is accessed as though it were data memory. There are 3 fundamental characteristics used to differentiate microprocessors.

  the difference between the Microprocessor and the Microcontroller.


Visual and Identical difference between them


So, visually if you see any microcontroller or microprocessor, there is hardly any difference between them. They almost look very identical. But they are different in many aspects. They are different in terms of the applications in which they are used, they are different in terms of the cost. They are different in terms of the processing power which they possess, and they are different in terms of power consumption. The difference between them in terms of the applications in which they are used. The classic example of the microprocessor application is a personal computer or laptop. , using This laptop we can do a lot of stuff. Like, we can use it for the gaming, for web browsing, for photo editing, for creating documents, or we can use if for mathematical calculations, simulations or media streaming. The microprocessor is basically used in an application where the task is not predefined. It depends on the user. It is used in applications where intensive processing is required. While in the case of a microcontroller, they are used for specific tasks, based on the inputs which are given to the microcontroller, it does some processing and it gives the result as an output. The input could be a user input or the inputs which are coming from the sensors. The example of microcontroller applications is the digital camera, washing machine, and microwave oven. If you see all these devices, the task which is going to be performed is predefined. In the case of a microwave oven, once you set the power and the timing, it gives you the cooked food. Likewise in the case of a washing machine, once you set the parameters of the machine, it gives you clean and dry clothes. The microcontroller is used in applications where the task is predefined.

  The difference between them in terms of the internal structure.


The microprocessors are used in applications where the task is not predefined. They can be used for a very light application like creating documents or a very intensive application like gaming or media streaming. The amount of memory that is required depending upon the application.  If you see the microprocessor chip, it only contains CPU.

  Which is the Central Processing Unit

All the memory elements and the I/O interfaces are connected to it externally. In a case of a microprocessor, memory elements like RAM, ROM, I/O ports, Serial interfaces and timers, all are connected externally. While in a case of a microcontroller, as they are used for a specific task, the amount of memory and the I/O ports which are required are limited. In a case of a microcontroller, all the memory elements and I/O ports are integrated along with the CPU inside a single chip. The size of the overall system is much smaller. While in a case of a microprocessor, as all the memory elements and I/O ports are connected externally, so overall size of the system is larger than the microcontroller.

The difference between microcontroller and microprocessor in terms of processing power and memory.


Microprocessors are operated at a much higher speed. If you see the clock speed of a microprocessor,
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Specification of microprocessor
it is in the range of Giga Hertz. The clock speed varies from the 1 GHz to the 4 GHz for the high-end processors. The microprocessor has to run an operating system, the amount of memory that is RAM and ROM, which is required is quite high. If you see the Random Access Memory or RAM which is a volatile memory in the microprocessor, it ranges from 512 MB and it goes up to 32GB for high-end microprocessors. Similarly, if you see the ROM in the microprocessor, it ranges from the 128 GB and it goes up to the 2TB(2 TeraBytes). The common peripheral interfaces which you see in the microprocessors are USB, High-speed Ethernet, and the UART. While in the case of a microcontroller, the clock speed is in the range of MegaHertz(MHz). If you see the clock speed of microcontrollers, it ranges from the 1 MHz and it goes up to the 300 MHz in the high-end microcontrollers. These microcontrollers are defined for a specific task, the amount of memory that is required by them is quite less. A Random Access Memory or RAM inside the microcontroller, it is in the range of KiloBytes. It can go from the 2 KB up to the 256 KB. Similarly, if you see a flash memory or a program memory inside the microcontroller, it varies from the 32 KB and it can go up
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Specification of microcontroller
to the 2 MB. The common peripheral interfaces which you find inside the microcontroller are I2C, SPI, and UART. All these are serial interfaces, which you find in modern-day microcontrollers. Modern-day microprocessors, they are either 32 bit or 64 bit. 32-bit microprocessor means a microprocessor can handle 32 bits of binary data at the same time. Similarly, a 64-bit microprocessor can handle 64 bits of data at the same time. So, in a case of 64 bit of microprocessor, all the address bus and the data buses are of the 64 bits. Similarly, in the case of a 32-bit microprocessor,
the address and the data bus are of 32 bits. While if you see modern-day microcontrollers,
they are either of 8 bits, 16 bits or 32 bits. The amount of data that can be handled
by a microprocessor in a single cycle is higher than the microcontrollers.

The difference between the microcontroller and microprocessor in terms of power consumption and the cost.


  A microprocessor, as all the memory elements and I/O ports, are connected externally, the overall cost of the system, as well as power consumption, is higher compared to the microcontrollers.

Differences between Microprocessor and Microcontroller
Differences between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

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