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NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology is a part of modern science where the technology is used in its tiny structure. Nanotechnology is a highly modified technology, involved in Modern Engineering, Economical facts, Modern Medical Treatment, Fuel cell, Space Science, Modern Nanotube, Fabrication, Chemical Products, Biological Weapons, Etc.
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Introduction:-  

The word Nanotechnology stands, the Nano is a prefix that is used in the word "Nanotechnology". The word Nano stands for 1 billionth part of any object and the "Technology" stands for the science or knowledge used in Identify and solve any kind of problem. So the Nanotechnology is the branch of a technical architecture that deals with the dimensions and the measurement especially the manipulation of any molecule and atom of an object. The size limitation of any Nanomaterial is 1-100 nm.  

What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is defined as the branch of the science technology where the architecture work of any object at Nanoscale (1-100 nm). Nanotechnology is a highly advanced science technology that refers to construct any object at the nanoscale in the same function of the high scale object. using techniques and tools being developed in modern science to complete and deploy high-performance technology. We can call them Nanotechnology

What is Nanomaterial?

Nanotechnology and the Nanomaterial are two similar types of content but the fact is the raw product that is used to create Nanotechnology is called Nanomaterial. Nanomaterials are the nanoscale (1-100 nm) product with novel characteristics, which conduct more strength, chemical reactivity or more electrically active rather than normal product.

What is Nanostructure?

Any kind of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials are made up of Nanostructure. Another necessary criterion for the definition is that the demand that the Nanostructure is synthetic, i.e. a synthetically made Nanoparticle or Nanomaterial. Include each naturally shaped biomolecule and material particle, in impact redefining a lot of chemistry and biology as "Nanotechnology".
The most necessary demand for the Nanotechnology definition is that the nano-structure has special properties that are complete because of its Nanoscale proportions. This definition relies on the number of dimensions of the fabric, that is outside the nanoscale (1-100nm). The zero-dimensional Nanomaterials are pre-sized in Nanoscale.  
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Application of Nanotechnology:-


To understand the scale between around one and a hundred nanometers, wherever distinctive phenomena change novel engineering applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, engineering involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale.
Nanometer(nm) is 1 billionth part of a meter. A sheet of paper is concerning a hundred nm thick; one gold atom is a couple of a third of a nanometer in diameter. Dimensions between around one and a hundred nanometers are referred to as the nanoscale. uncommon physical, chemical, and biological properties will emerge in materials at the nanoscale. These properties might disagree in vital ways in which from the properties of bulk materials and single atoms or molecules.

Nanocomposites:-

The use of nanoparticles and nanotubes is in composites, materials that mix one or additional separate elements and that are designed to exhibit overall the simplest properties of every part. This multi-functionality applies not solely to mechanical properties however extends to optical, electrical and magnetic ones. Currently, carbon fibers and bundles of multi-walled CNTs are employed in polymers to regulate or enhance physical phenomenon, with applications like antistatic packaging. the employment of individual CNTs in composites could be a potential semipermanent application. a specific kind of nanocomposite is wherever nanoparticles act as fillers in an exceeding matrix; as an example, smut used as a filler to bolster automobile tires. However, particles of smut will vary from tens to many nanometres in size, thus not all smut falls at intervals our definition of nanoparticles.

Nanocoatings and nanostructured surfaces:-

Coatings with thickness controlled at the nano- or atomic scale are in routine production for a few times, as an example in molecular beam growing or metal compound chemical vapor deposition for optoelectronic devices, or in catalytically active and with chemicals functionalized surfaces. Recently developed applications embody the self-cleaning window, that is coated in extremely activated pigment, designed to be extremely hydrophobic (water repellent) and medicinal drug, and coatings supported nanoparticulate oxides that catalytically destroy chemical agents.

Nanoclays:-

Clays containing present nanoparticles have long been necessary as construction materials and are undergoing continuous improvement. Clay particle-based composites – containing plastics and nano-sized flakes of clay – also are finding applications like employed in automobile bumpers.

Nanocutting Tools:-

Cutting tools product of nanocrystalline materials, like W inorganic compound, metallic element inorganic compound, and metallic element inorganic compound, are additional wear and erosion-resistant, and last longer than their typical (large-grained) counterparts. they're finding applications within the drills accustomed boreholes in circuit boards.

Nano paints:-

Incorporating nanoparticles in paints may improve their performance, as an example by creating them lighter and giving them completely different properties. diluent paint coatings (‘lightweight’), used as an example on craft, would scale back their weight, which may be helpful to the setting. However, the full life cycle of the craft has to be thought-about before the general edges are often claimed.
It may even be doable to considerably scale back solvent content of paints, with ensuing environmental edges. New kinds of fouling resistant marine paint may be developed and are desperately required as alternatives to tributyltin (TBT), currently that the ecological impacts of TBT are recognized. The anti-fouling surface treatment is additionally valuable in method applications like heat exchange, wherever it could lead to energy savings. If they'll be created at a sufficiently low price, fouling-resistant coatings may be employed in routine duties like piping for domestic and industrial water systems. It remains speculation whether or not terribly effective anti-fouling coatings may scale back the employment of biocides, as well as halogen. different novels and additional semipermanent, applications for nanoparticles would possibly exist paints that amendment color in response to variations in temperature or chemical setting or paints that have scaled back infra-red absorption factor so reduce heat loss.

Nano lubricants:-

Nanospheres of inorganic materials may be used as lubricants, in essence by acting as nanosized ‘ball bearings’. The controlled form is claimed to form them additional sturdy than typical solid lubricants and wear additives. whether or not the augmented monetary and resource price of manufacturing them is offset by the longer service life of lubricants and elements remains to be investigated. it's conjointly claimed that these nanoparticles scale back friction between metal surfaces, notably at high traditional hundreds. If so, they must realize their 1st applications in superior engines and drivers; this might embody the energy sector additionally as transport. there's an additional claim that this sort of lubricator is effective notwithstanding the metal surfaces aren't extremely swish.

Advantages of Nanotechnology:-

Again, the advantages of reduced price and resource input for machining should be compared against the assembly of nano lubricants. all told these applications, the particles would be distributed in an exceedingly typical liquid lubricator; style of the lubricant system should, therefore, embody measures to contain and manage waste. Concerns the health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles could need the necessity for the sturdiness and abrasion behavior of nano-engineered paints and coatings to be addressed, so abrasion product takes the shape of coarse or microscopic agglomerates instead of individual nanoparticles. Wear and scratch-resistant laborious coatings are considerably improved by nanoscale intermediate layers (or multilayers) between the laborious outer layer and also the Nanomaterial. The intermediate layers provide smart bonding and ranked matching of elastic and thermal properties, so up adhesion. a variety of increased textiles, like breathable, waterproof and stain-resistant materials, are enabled by the improved management of body at the nanoscale and surface roughness in an exceeding sort of polymers and inorganics.
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Conclusion of Nanotechnology:-

We outline nanoscience because the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and molecule scales, wherever properties disagree considerably from those at a bigger scale; and Nanotechnologies because of the style, characterization, production, and application of structures, devices, and systems by dominant form and size at the nanometre scale.
Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies In some senses, nanoscience, and Nanotechnologies aren't new. Chemists are creating polymers, that are massive molecules created of nanoscale subunits, for several decades and Nanotechnologies are wont to produce the small options on pc chips for the past twenty years. However, advances within the tools that currently enable atoms and molecules to be examined and probed with nice preciseness have enabled the growth and development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies.

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